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Jerusalem / A Solution for the Old City:

Hybrid Model

The Hybrid model attempts to combine the most attractive aspects of the Territorial Sovereignty and Special Regime models. A proposal by Israeli NGO Terrestrial Jerusalem envisions a clear division of territorial sovereignty in the Old City (Territorial Sovereignty model), but without physical boundaries within the Old City walls. It provides for international involvement (Special Regime model), limited to narrow, sensitive areas such as security and holy sites, with all other sovereign powers vested in the respective states.


Pros and Cons of the Hybrid Model


  • Satisfies the demands for sovereignty, creating a political border that is conducive to an end of claims

  • Creates effective third party involvement to ensure stability while being compatible with claims of sovereignty. 

  • Avoids creating a mini-state in the Old City, while still guaranteeing the integrity of and access to holy sites.



  • Requires complex legal and administrative mechanisms with a more limited third-party role than the Special Regime model.

  • Parties have access to all holy sites, but waive sovereignty over those that fall on the other side of the border.

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